“If anyone tells you, ‘There he is, out in the desert,’ do not go out; or ‘Here he is, in the inner rooms,’ do not believe it.” Matthew 24:25. NIV
Lessons from the Waco Tragedy, Part 1
At the time of the 51-day long siege the Branch Davidian compound, otherwise known as Mount Carmel in Waco Texas – orchestrated by the ATF law enforcement Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, and the American Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) – was home to around 120 followers of the self-declared prophet and messiah David Koresh, whose real name was Vernon Howell.
According to various sources at the violent end on April 19, 1993, of the longest siege of the kind on the US soil on April 19, 1993, more than 80 people, including four federal agents and at least 20 children,died as a result of two violent encounters involving federal law enforcement and the Branch Davidian Christian sect near Waco, Texas.” 1. Debate still goes on if the deadly fire was caused by the Branch Davidians or the FBI’s action. Was it a tragic accident or deliberately planted?
Most of the living survivors continue to remain loyal followers of David Koresh. They believe that one day they will see David Koresh return victoriously in the clouds of Heaven to defeat the enemies of God and to reign in Jerusalem over the entire world as the new King David. For example, Graeme Craddock, an Australian and the longest prison serving survivor of the 1993 Waco siege, continues to believe that “David Koresh will one day return to Earth as the son of God.” 2. So does Livingstone Fagan, a British survivor, who seem to be continuing to promote the teachings of Koresh through his limited social media activities. 3
The more I read about Vernon Howell, who assumed his “prophetic” name David Koresh in 1989, believed by his followers to be a prophet and the Son of God, the more I am disgusted by his controlling, deceiving, sociopathic and toxic personality. One wonders how he was capable of building a following of fanatically loyal people, willing to go as far as to surrender their own wives and daughters to him – eventually their lives too. Considering the perverse character of his teachings and lifestyle, one wonders indeed how was he able to deceive people with sophisticated levels of education? Some of them were teachers, nurses, business-people, retired military men. Others were theology students, professors, musicians, and artists.
On the other hand, I find almost equally unacceptable the methods the US government used against David Koresh and his followers during the days of the long siege, and especially on the final hellish day of the siege. Their use of psychological warfare and excessive deadly force against a community of people looked more like an out-of-control war scene in a far-removed war-torn country than a police action on American soil. Even now, 30 years later, I am remaining unconvinced that it was necessary for the ATF to attack the compound, and for the FBI to use brutal militarized force which ultimately led to the death of more than 80 people, many of whom were children. In the most recent Netflex documentary Waco – American Apocalypse, Blenda Ganem, mother of a survivor Dave Thibodeau made a statement with which I tend to agree (from memory): “David Koresh had a power, and he knew how to abuse it. FBI had a power, and it knew how to abuse it.”
My focus will be on people caught up in the cultish environment that led them across the line of no return. Some of the people who died a horrific death at the end of the Waco siege were people I knew. They were my college friends who had five years earlier embraced David Koresh as their prophet and messiah. I remember them as good and devout people, in many ways not unlike many of us. Most certainly they did not have criminal intentions. None of them joined the Branch Davidian’s cult because they were desperately seeking to kill and die in the pursuit of some violent apocalyptic adventure. Nevertheless, they all paid a heavy price for their gullibility and falling for a deadly deception. Five years earlier we studied together at Newbold College, England, at the time a leading and sophisticated Seventh-day Adventist educational institution in Europe.
Ever since I’ve been asking a question: What makes a good and devout person embrace a dangerous religious or political ideology? This will be a guiding question today. In the follow up episode we will talk about the spiritual roots and makeup of the Branch Davidian’s theology. Finally, we need to talk about the political and cultural legacy and implications of the Waco tragedy. I agree with the statement introducing the latest Netflix documentary on the Waco tragedy (Waco: American Apocalypse) which suggests that “the seeds of political polarization that roil our culture today were planted at Waco”. 4
An Ominous Visitor
I first heard about David Koresh in the summer of 1988. At the time, he was still known by his real name, Vernon Howell. Steve Schneider, Koresh’s right-hand man and his liaison officer, visited Binfield, a tranquil English village close to the town of Bracknell. He was on a recruitment mission to England, and his plan for the summer was to bring the “new truth” about “the prophetic and messianic call” of Vernon Howell (David Koresh) to the students at Newbold College. Since those were the summer months, free from any academic activities, only a small group of unsuspecting students, professors and staff members remained on the college grounds. I was there too, working several summer jobs in anticipation of securing some income that would help me move on with my education.
Steve Schneider used to study at Newbold College too, fifteen years earlier, but was expelled due to some behavioral issues. When the college administration realized that Steve did not come back to Newbold for a brief nostalgic visit – a common practice among many former students – but that he was on a recruitment mission, they denied him the privilege of staying and “evangelizing” within the college boundaries. Steve was then welcome into the home of a sympathizing staff member. The home of an assistant college cook became his teaching sanctuary and the base for all his outreach activities on behalf of David Koresh.
For several weeks a group of curious students, some staff members and a few locals gathered every day, in the late evening hours after they had finished work for the day, to listen to Steve Schneider. His teaching sessions went on for many hours, reaching into the early morning of the following day. While initially most attended the meetings out of sheer curiosity, some were undergoing a steady and visible process of conversion.
Roger Flalokken, a Newbold theology student from Norway was invited to attend Steve’s Bible study meetings too. He described his memories of the meetings he had attended: “I was invited to listen to Steve Schneider. It happened in the late evening, going on for hours. Schneider said he had new light on important biblical truths. He introduced himself as a messenger, a prophetic voice, preparing a group to meet the leader of the movement at a later stage. It was impressive to hear how he knew so many Bible verses by heart. He would talk and talk, intensely, painting his picture of this important new light, always quoting the Scripture to validate his claims. Questions from the listeners were not answered, but he said he would come back to them. For me it was frustrating that questions were not answered. It must have been after two or three gatherings I stopped attending. I also questioned the fact that we had to meet so late at night, going on till well after midnight.” 5
The rumor about the unusual visitor from Waco spread quickly within the Newbold community. The fact that the overnight meetings lasted for many long hours every night, and that almost all attending went without adequate sleep, although each one of them had to work early the following morning, was a good enough warning for me that a cultic-style brainwashing was in progress in our neighborhood. One day we heard that “the prophet” Vernon himself had arrived with his guitar to harvest the fruit of Steve’s labor.
The Lesser Light
Although I did not have any desire to join the group, I remember having several conversations with a few who could not hide that the conversion of their hearts and minds was very much in progress. I was the most directly aware of a serious shift in belief in the life of a college friend, Cliff Sellors, a recent convert to Adventism. A video production project that we shared as a communication class requirement brought us closer a few months earlier.
Even before Cliff met Steve Schneider and David Koresh, I knew that he had the exaggerated passion for the writings of the Adventist prophetess Ellen G. White. In the formative years of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, in the mid 19th century in America, her dreams and visions had a crucial role in shaping the identity of the emerging church. Since then, in traditional Adventist circles, she has been called “the Inspired Pen”, “the Lord’s Messenger”, “the lesser light leading to the greater light”, and the most often “The Spirit of Prophecy”.
On several occasions Cliff and I discussed various topics related to the inspiration of the message and writings of Ellen G. White. We were good friends who did not share the same conviction about the importance of the Adventist prophetess. Cliff was a very good, modest and humble young man, who in the writings of Ellen G. White constantly sought to find “more truth” and “new light”. I believe he read her writings more than he read the Bible.
Cliff was a genuinely gifted artist. In those days he was painting a beautiful mural named “Genesis”, depicting the seven days of creation on the front wall of the college Science Room. Whenever he worked on the painting, he would listen to audio recordings of her prophetic messages. He was deeply dissatisfied with his spiritual condition and imperfections, as well as with the “backsliding” of his church. In the writings of Ellen G. White, he sought the truths that would elevate his obedience to the Law of God, ever closer to the perfection that had been eluding him all the time. In his eyes the truth of God was progressive, and there was always room for “the new light”, granted only to God’s “faithful Remnant” – those who “keep God’s commandments, and hold to the testimony of Jesus,” and believe in “the Spirit of Prophecy”, the pictures presented in the Book of Revelation for which traditional Adventists still believe to apply to Ellen G. White.
A former Newbold student pastor David Neal, currently serving as a denominational Communication and Media Director at the Trans-European division remembers Cliff’s spiritual restlessness very well from his own personal encounters. “In the few conversations I had with him in the college cafeteria, it wasn’t long before he would express disappointment about the college environment. He wondered why we played five-a-side football in the college gym when Ellen White, in his opinion, condemned competitive sports. He suggested that some of the teachers were not as fervent as he was about proclaiming the Adventist message, the perilous condition of the world, end-time events, and the very soon return of Christ. He was questioning why some of the theology staff seemed to be teaching a ‘new theology’ of salvation, one that emphasized the love, grace, and mercy of God. In his opinion, it was judgment time, a time when our actions, both personal and corporate, would demonstrate whether or not we were ready for Christ’s soon return” – wrote David Neal for the UK Adventist News recently. 6
In contrast to Cliff, I was satisfied that all truth and light that mattered for my salvation was contained to the fullest in the person of Jesus, and that no relevant truth existed outside Him. I wanted Cliff to see too that the beauty and simplicity of the Gospel of Christ did not require the pursuit of any kind of complicated doctrinal or prophetic gymnastics. I did not believe that the role of the post-canonical New Testament prophets was to be the revealers or upgraders of any God given truth, let alone the saving truth since all of it had already been revealed once and for all, and to the fullest, in the person of Jesus Christ. I shared with Cliff that I believed that the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus gave complete meaning to the whole prophetic ministry of the Old Testament, and there existed no other truth that would ever reach beyond or outside Jesus.
When in the summer of 1988 Steve Schneider begun his mission of indoctrination in the UK, Cliff became hooked by his message almost instantly. He would share with me the fragments of what was happening at the meetings. I thought for a moment that his commitment to Ellen G. White would keep him away from the prophetic claims of anyone else. But this was not to be. He, and a few other Newbold students, were impressed with the apparent ease by which Steve was “interpreting” the Old and New Testament Bible prophecies and blending them with the writings of Ellen G. White. For Steve’s Newbold audience, mostly made of traditional Adventists who revered their prophetess, Steve prepared a familiar, irresistible platform. He quoted Amos 3:7. – “The Sovereign Lord does nothing without revealing his plan to his servants the prophets.” Steve knew that his audience would be willing to receive a “new light” only if it appears to be Ellen G. White friendly.
“They believe in Ellen G. White!” These were some of the very first remarks Cliff shared with me after one of the first of Steve’s classes that he attended. To Cliff it mattered that this “new truth” he was hearing from Steve affirmed the prophetic authority of Ellen G. White. And Steve worked hard to impress the emerging disciples that Ellen G. White was very much revered by both, Vernon Howell (David Koresh) and himself.
For Steve however, setting a common ground was only a means of moving forward from a familiar ground into a new uncharted territory. He argued that if “God hand-picked” Ellen G. White to fulfill a special prophetic mission in the 19thcentury, he certainly did not stop there. Steve reasoned that just as much as God appointed Ellen G. White as his “special messenger”, God had now chosen another inspired vehicle to upgrade his “last message”. And, sure enough, the name of the prophet was Vernon Howell, soon to be revered by his followers as David Koresh. It did not take too long for Cliff and a group of other converts to feel reassured that believing in the prophetic mission of a new prophet would not contradict their faith in the prophetic gift of Ellen G. White. In fact, they were led to believe in the complementarity of both, Ellen G. White and Vernon Howell.
The Mind-Blowing New Truth
But their arrival at this “new light” only meant the beginning of a journey that would thereafter become filled with one surprise after another.
Steve then proceeded to teach that David Koresh was more than a prophet. He was soon to be received by the new converts, one step at the time, as the “antitypical David”, “the antitypical Cyrus”, “the Lamb of God”, and “the Son of God” – the only one to whom it was given to open the mysteries of “the seven seals” of the Book of Revelation. Moreover, he was to be received as “the new Messiah of the House of David”, “God’s anointed”, “God in sinful human flesh” sent into the world to complete the saving work of Jesus by becoming the “Sinful Messiah”. Since the first Jesus was the spotless and sinless Lamb of God – the reasoning followed – Jesus could not have completely identified with the human race. To complete his saving work, God had to send another Messiah – the second Jesus – namely David Koresh to complete the work of redemption by radically indulging in the sins of the world. Salvation now required that one believed not only in Jesus Christ, but even more in David Koresh.
Each time Steve was stepping onto a new, more preposterous ground, he would enthusiastically declare: “This truth will blow your mind!” Whenever anyone in the attending group would dare ask a critical or disagreeing question, Steve would respond: “You are not ready to receive this new light yet!”
Consequently, one of the “mind blowing truths” Steve delivered to the new converts was that David Koresh would have to marry many virgins to bring into the world a new race of God’s perfect children, who will together with him reign in Jerusalem over the new world. Apparently, he would need to marry many virgins, the number that went beyond any reasonable expectancy even in the circles of the most unrestrained polygamists. Another “mind blowing truth” I remember Cliff sharing with me was that David Koresh, as the new messiah, was going to be killed in 1993 by the wicked people, and like the first Jesus 2000 years earlier he would be raised from the dead three days later. 7
As the summer weeks of 1988 were advancing, I remember that several of us, who were concerned for the wellbeing of our friends caught up with David Koresh, were warning them that their newly discovered prophet and messiah was a charlatan, and one of those false Christs whom the real Christ warned us against when He said: “Watch out that no one deceives you. Many will come in my name, claiming, ‘I am the Christ, and will deceive many’” (Matthew 24:4 NIV).Although all of us knew next to nothing about Branch Davidians at the time, what we heard about the character of Steve’s “Bible studies” was enough to make us see the gravity of deception that was claiming the hearts and minds of our friends.
We wanted to help them see that this “new truth” was so preposterous by challenging them with questions like: “What if David Koresh, unable to find for himself so many virgins, decides ‘under a divine command’ to make advances on your own wives?” (We did not know David Koresh apparently already had several unofficial wives by that time. Apparently, the “revelation” by which God officially “authorized” him to claim the wives and daughters of his followers came one year later, in 1989.)
We also asked: “What if on the day the wicked people decide to take David’s life, your ‘messiah’ decides that all of you, his followers, would have to share in his sacrifice, by giving up your lives too?” We were oblivious at the time that our cynical questions, designed to shake the new converts out of their intoxicating dreams, were unintentional prophetic statements.
But no question, or criticism or joke could make sense to our friends anymore, who were sinking ever deeper in justifying the new teachings they were receiving from Steve Schneider, the ambassador of David Koresh. Their responses were: “Whoever said that we’ve received all the light? More is coming. We need to be open to receiving new truths! Why should we believe that Ellen G. White was the only one entrusted with ‘the Present Truth’”? Such was a comment made by John McBean, another Newbold theology student, in response to a discussion shared between the critics and the emerging group of followers of “the new light” about David Koresh one afternoon at Newbold College in the summer of 1988.
So, by the end of the summer 1988 my friend Cliff Sellors, and another two students, John McBean and Livingstone Fagan, all of them advanced theology students, passionately embraced “the new light”. All three were British students who in the months following the visitation of Steve Schneider and David Koresh decided they would evangelize their families, friends and local church communities. 8
Some who attended the summer 1988 midnight meetings listened to the advice of friends, or on their own they decided to break their connections with the new charismatic prophet and his teachings. One of the former students who used to attend the group wrote soon after the release of my earlier article on the Waco deception: “I attended the ‘Bible study group’ that Steve Schneider let at the assistant cook’s home that summer of 1988. I even met Vernon Howell in person. I’m so thankful I was impressed to leave the group study after an experience I had one night after a study, and also after Vernon (Koresh) showed up. Long story, but it wasn’t without much fervent prayer.” 9 But for my friends who embraced “the new light” and moved to Wacothis “new light” would turn into hellish darkness five years later.
On April 19, 1993 Cliff Sellors was consumed by the fiery inferno that completely destroyed the Branch Davidian compound in Waco. John McBean died too. Livingstone Fagan survived the siege. His wife and mother did not. 10 The casualty toll directly linked to their conversion multiplied several times over since all of them actively recruited others, their family members, cousins, friends. In total 24 Britons died in the Waco fire as the result of their recruitment activities. 11 All of them were good and devout people, in many ways not unlike many of us. Most certainly they did not have criminal intentions. None of them joined the Branch Davidians because they were desperately seeking to kill and die in the pursuit of some violent apocalyptic adventure. Yet they all paid a heavy price for their gullibility and falling for a deadly deception.
But more than for anyone else who died in Waco 30 years ago I mourn my friend Cliff Sellors. I believe he was sincerely thirsty for “more truth” and “more light”, which tragically he decided to quench from a poisoned and broken cistern. From the day he left Newbold College and the time he joined Koresh’s cult in Waco, until the fatal Monday on April 19, 1993 I did not hear anything about my friend. It was only several years later that I started picking up scarce bits of information here and there.
Apparently, with the same passion he used to paint the big Genesis mural in the Science Lab of Newbold College, in the years that followed he used his talent in service to his new-found messiah Koresh. According to the David Thibodeau’s book “Waco – A Survivor’s Story” Cliff was the official artist at the Branch Davidian’s compound. He artistically customized Koresh’s guitars with his explicit apocalyptic themes. Cliff also painted murals, posters and other illustrations depicting Koresh’s vision of the Apocalypse.12
According to the book “Preacher of Death,” co-authored by Marc Brault, who in the initial years of Koresh’s prophetic advancements served as his right-hand man (Marc left Branch Davidians in 1989), that Robyn Bunds, one of Koresh’s many wives married Cliff Sellors in a phony marriage, arranged by David Koresh. Apparently,this became a common practice within the Branch Davidian cult, intended to create a cover-up for Koresh’s polygamist practices, and for the children born out of the Koresh’s polygamist unions. Robin Bunds abandoned the cult in 1990. 13, 14
I remember reading that Cliff too either left the cult for a period or intended to leave because the Koresh’s promiscuity bothered him. While he studied at Newbold College several years earlier, Cliff was known as a person of “high personal morals”. Albert A.C. Waite, a professor in Physics and Sciences, who was also a good friend of Cliff’s – and who tried hard to discourage him from joining Davidians – wrote about Cliff: “He was more interested in showing a young lady the beauty of nature than in holding her hand”. 15
I wish I was more diligent in trying to persuade Cliff not to join the cult. But at that time, five years before the tragic end of the Waco siege, we (his friends) were all oblivious about the true lethality of the Koresh’s “messianic” cult. To us who watched from a distance the whole summer conversion episode of 1988 looked ridiculous and insane. We saw our friends turning into some weird, but harmless fanatics. We hoped they would grow out of it eventually. Until, five years later, when we all watched the CNN’s live reporting on the blazing Waco fire on April 19, 1993.
How I wish Cliff Sellors was strong enough to break away from David Koresh completely. Unfortunately, a small plaque that bears his name, next to the plaques of other victims of the inferno that form a modest monument at the Mount Carmel property near Waco, reminds me today that this amazingly gifted artist died too soon in the fires of Waco “with his music still in him” (Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr).
Lessons to Learn
It is all right to be spiritually hungry and thirsty, but it matters how you go about satisfying your spiritual hunger. Jesus said to the woman at the well: “Whoever drinks the water I give them will never thirst. Indeed, the water I give them will become in them a spring of water welling up to eternal life.” John 4:14. NIV Jesus said also: “I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never go hungry.” John 6:35. NIV What Jesus meant was that He alone, and nothing or no one else, can satisfy our spiritual hunger and thrust. We need to separate our legitimate spiritual hunger after Jesus from the urge to hunt for some new truth or new light, or new revelation, or a new prophet.
The message of the Bible is clear that there exists no truth beyond and outside the revelation of Jesus Christ. The opening statement of the Letter to the Hebrews states that “in these last day God has fully spoken to us by His Son.” Hebrews 1:2 What does this statement mean? It means that after and beyond Jesus God does not have any new truth of relevance to be delivered to us. This also means that whoever would come after the redemptive work of Jesus was completed in his life, death and resurrection, claiming to be a bearer of the new light or to be a prophet or messiah – that such a person is either an insane person, or a con artist, a deceiver, or a false prophet or a false messiah, definitely a liar.
And about these kind of prophets and messiahs Jesus warned sternly: “If anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Messiah!’ or, ‘There he is!’ do not believe it. For false messiahs and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect. See, I have told you ahead of time. So if anyone tells you, ‘There he is, out in the wilderness,’ do not go out; or, ‘Here he is, in the inner rooms,’ do not believe it. For as lightning that comes from the east is visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man.” Matthew 24:23-25. NIV
The New Testament writers also warned that in the final days of human history prior to Jesus’ Second Coming a mastermind deceiver, a false Christ known also as the Antichrist will emerge and will try to falsify everything the true Christ represents. He will deceive many people, including many who profess that they are the followers of Jesus. Most likely this will be the last Satan’s attempt to deceive, perfected throughout many centuries through many trials and errors. David Koresh was yet another one of Satan’s experimental testing exercises. Apparently, there are at this time at least seven self-declared messiahs with some following who too are claiming that they are Jesus Christ. 16
I share no sympathy for the late Branch Davidian’s deceiver David Koresh. But my heart goes to the deceived, men, women and especially children who paid the ultimate price for following Koresh’s deception to their deaths. And I empathize the most with the friends I knew personally whose lives ended in the fiery furnace on the Mount Carmel in Waco Texas on Monday, April 19, 1993.
And as I continue to wonder how come they were so gullible, and how come they were not able to see though the deception once they had encountered it, I am being reminded of the millions of Christians today, who are professing to be born again, and who are falling for all kinds of deceptions not unlike the one embodied in the teachings of David Koresh thirty years ago. Too many Christians today enthusiastically follow militant forms of Christian nationalism, dominionism, supremacism, hysterical proclamations of the multitudes of self-proclaimed prophets, apostles, and deliverance charlatans. Too many have blended their Christian faith with the New Age teachings and all kinds of preposterous conspiracy narratives. We have to ask: are they not falling for the same kind of deception but on a much larger scale, and potentially more lethal. This is a theme which I am planning to address towards the end of this series of presentations.
Meanwhile, let’s be shielded from any kind of deception and from any self-appointed messiah by adhering to the warning of Jesus: “If anyone tells you, ‘There he is, out in the desert,’ do not go out; or ‘Here he is, in the inner rooms,’ do not believe it.” Matthew 24:25. NIV
Go to part two: The Unfortunate Spiritual Legacy
1 Dave Davies, NPR, Jan 25, 2023: 30 years after the siege, ‘Waco’ examines what led to the catastrophe. https://www.npr.org/2023/01/25/1151283229/waco-branch-davidian-david-koresh-jeff-guinn
2. 60 Minutes Australia, February 28, 2019, Sole Australian survivor of Waco siege breaks silence,https://youtu.be/VfQjNzJzlZo
3. Livingstone Fagan’s Facebook activities. https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009550941051
4. Reason TV, March 21, 2023, What really happened at Waco, https://youtu.be/XTx8E9kLDYQ
5. The Truth That Will Blow Your Mind, Tihomir Kukolja, August 2018, https://kukolja.wordpress.com/2018/04/16/the-truth-that-will-blow-your-mind/
6. WACO 30th Anniversary: Cliff – A Personal Reflection, David Neal,
7. Independent, Cal McCrystal, The “Lamb of God” predicted he would die in 1993, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/waco-seventhday-adventists-used-spies-in-the-battle-to-halt-koresh-s-crusade-evidence-gathered-three-years-ago-by-a-church-in-britain-shows-that-the-lamb-of-god-predicted-he-would-die-in-1993-cal-mccrystal-reports-1457215.html
8. WACO 30th Anniversary: Continuities and Discontinuities, Dr. Steve Currow
9. The Truth That Will Blow Your Mind, Tihomir Kukolja, August 2018, https://kukolja.wordpress.com/2018/04/16/the-truth-that-will-blow-your-mind/
10. The Sun, Feb 28, 2018, 25 YEARS ON Brit survivor of tragic Waco cult reveals he STILL believes in coming apocalypse and recalls harrowing 1993 siege that left 86 dead, https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/5672656/british-survivor-waco-cult-david-koresh-still-believes-apocalypse-coming/
11. The Washington Post, April 21, 1993, Death of 24 Britons Stuns UK, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1993/04/21/deaths-of-24-britons-stuns-uk/34a991b5-95a8-4afd-9a46-bc5b49734444/
12. David Thibodeau, Waco A Survivor’s Story: Hachette Books, Hachette Book Group, New York, US, Revised edition 2018.
13. Martin King and Marc Breault, Preached of Death, Pinguin Books Ltd, London, England, 1993.
15. Spectrum, Albert A.C. Waite, The British Connection – Remembering Waco, March 14, 2018, spectrummagazine.org/article/2018/03/14/british-connection
16. Seven men around the world who each claim to be Jesus Christ, news.com.au, Dec. 25, 2017, https://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/real-life/seven-men-around-the-world-who-each-claim-to-be-jesus-christ/news-story/563e56671b7c9931b6606619df6be4c8
Read also in Spectrum Magazine.